Which sealed the downfall of the Mayan culture
Non-Palao Astronauts à la Daniken, not wars or acute environmental disasters, but a gradual climate change satisfied the Mayan culture an end. Like scientists of the Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam (Gfz) and the ETH Zurich together with US colleagues in the science magazine "Science" (. 299, nr. 5613, PP. 1731-1735) reported, a long dry period brought the classic Mayan culture on a highly probably. In the 8. and 9. Century had no longer enough water to store water for their increased population.
They came from the darkness of the story and disappeared on obscure ways as well. Perhaps the cultural heritage of Mayan civilization has gone lost in the current of the time, did not have some historical sources sustained the nagging tooth of the time. Had the in the middle of the primeval forest of the Pittorsken Piyramids embedded in the northern lowlands of the Yucatan Peninsula (today’s Mexico, Guatemala, Belize), Public Assembly Patay, Stone Masks, Witers, Cisterns, Ceramic Products, and Fonts as the last witnesses of a once flowing high culture itself, the temporal blessed Goods the epoch of Mayas has not even been considered in the annals with a piercing note.
Peaceful culturally high peasant folk
But the seemingly dumb relics that surround the times in the midst of tropical vegetation and that already in 16. Century the Spanish troops during their conquest and yield through Sud and Central Europe in the rainwales of Yucatan as the first representative of the evening country "Culture" Face to face, were talkful because of their moving past than it seemed. They paid by a once culturally high, peace-loving civilization with nature in harmony, which had a sensitivity for the starry sky and therefore created an efficient calendar system that invented the ball game and a highly complicated writing, but still at the end of the 9. Century of unacceptable grounds – quasi on the highlight of her blood season – suddenly and untraceable from the story disappeared.
Practically from a generation to the next, the Mayan people seemingly in nothing. The population number grew in the 8. Century still up to 15 million people, it came a century later – at least from the view of demographic – to the collapse.
What back remained from the once-bleeding beads in the lowlands Yucatatians were besides promised smaller groups of people abandoned ruins and numerous on monuments and ceramics immailed Maya inscriptions, but with which the archaeologists, historians and anthropologists knew nothing for a long time. Only as the end of the eighties of the last century the complicated code of the Mayanordin "cracked" becoming – until the end of 1994, the Mayan researchers were able to read and understand 80 percent of the writing symbols – loose the myth of the gentle and peace-loving Mayan flights in air.
After the milling studies of hieroglyphic inscriptions, it looked like all speculation on the true reason of the decline of the Maya ad acta had to be placed. After that, non-devastating earthquakes, an ecological collapse of intensive agriculture and predator on rainforest, had a deadly illness, succinct climate change or even an invasion of strangers (!) initiated the beginning of the end of the Mayans. Rather, it was the Mayas himself.
The deciphering of the picture script of the jungle inhabitants brought down in stone and also on paper disenchanted the myth of the harmonious farming population. This on the most radical way. From the peaceful society, a highest warrior, whose everyday life was Anno Dazumal determined by bloody rituals and cruel wars. The isolated wars were surprised by one "cold War", which raged between the two superfaces tikal and calakmul. Between the fronts of the two gross, but subordinate to this last end, there were 50 independent small states that were steady with each other in the war, but each other neutralized. The two gross brother, on the other hand, established a balance of the horror and military conquests a balance and avoids a direct confrontation due to skilful alliance formations, marriage policy and military conquests.
All wars we find broke off between two small states of these two power bloc. These were deputy wars,
explains Nikolai pit from the "University of Texas / Austin", One of the worldwide Mayan experts who had the relocation of the MAYA Scripture. As long as the two super maids held the scales, the balancing of the force worked. But as a tikal at the beginning of the seventh century, the confrontation sought and won on Calakmul, not only the political-economic balance from the joints.
Rather, Tikal was simply supposed, as its economic and political structures were insufficient to control and hold the resulting huge rich centralist. The Mayan Empire blacked – according to the latest research of research, however, only. "It was not a sudden disappearance, but a slow downfall", illustrates the American archaologist Diane Chase.
Climate as a collapse factor
But now some nostalgic Mayan researchers seem to walk back on or in old theoria paths. Scientists of the Geoforschungszentrum (Gfz) and the ETH Zurich in is together with American colleagues from Miami, Princeton and Woods Get success for the first time to draw a praisis image of the climatic framework conditions, which the blood season of the classic Mayan culture and the phase of abrupt collapse in the 9th. 13th century characterized by Christ.
On the basis of geochemical investigations of the sediments of the Cariaco Becken in front of the Kuste Venezuelas, the scientists were able to prove that the climate in the northern Sudamerika in the 8. and 9. Century was dryer than before. With the help of the titanium salary of the sediments, the scientists were able to draw rucks on climate change in the past.
Based on the fact that in strong departure, Titanium also flows out of the ground and at the same time is forwarded to the sea where it deposits in the ocean floor, the researchers reached a precise, almost monthly resolution of the climate variability in the region. The data thus represents an accurate climate archive that recording the quantitative variability of the climate of the region and thus allocate a suffocation of the direct influence of the climate on the habitat of Maya in Yucatan.
Three intense dry periods
The experts are sure that at the end of the classic blood phase, the climate was greatly affected by the Mayan culture. At this time, several million people lived on Yucatan. The Maya lived in coarse bats, she knew tremendous environmental problems such as the soil erosion, which, among other things, led to food gambles in the time before collapse. The new climate data shows that during the archaologically described phase of collapse, the grounds were generally reduced. In addition, dry periods occurred with a duration of three to nine years, which can be dated to approximately the period ad 810, 860, and 910, which have a good match with important phases of the demographic catastrophe of the Maya.
According to Jeremy Sabloff, his sign director of the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology "University of Pennsylvania", have to be seen the causes of decline of the Mayan society multi-exceptionally. The researcher succeeded in the British Science Magazine New Scientist:
Any Explanation for Decline is a Complex One: Over Population, Environmental Problems and Economic Factors All Made Them Vulnerable. But There is growing evidence that climate played a role. PERHAPS IT WHAT THE STRAW THAT BROKE THE CAMEL’s Back.
For Gerald Haug from the Sweetening Technical College Zurich, who led the study, the hand-resistant relationship between the downfall of the former high culture and local dryness no longer have to be from hand.
The 9. Century was a phase of intense dryness with three coarse durrovers. The relevant climate change must have been that the Maya Society gave the last rest.
However, however, and in it all Mayan researchers agree – their hands are not in the game: if they have such overhead.