Herbert Marshall McLuhan (21. July 1911 – 31. Dec. 1980) goods have become 90 years old today. What was from his slogans?
Even who has nothing of McLuhan Weib, has been at least one of his saying. He marks a relative misunderstanding that has been successful nonetheless. But McLuhan was despite all the treatment through European intellectuals (H.M. Enzensberger once called him the converter of one "reactionar health teaching") No blind propagandist of the new media, but a penifler explorer of the cultural transition.
Central for McLuhan was the thesis that the media developments of the Western culture does not necessarily follow a logic of decay: the decline of the previously-educated book culture can also mean an launch of new senses, instead of the literal alitate is a new oralitat (RockMusik etc). The font and prere culture sacrificed whole worlds of meaning and perception content, as it is called, whose potential prere of the candidate is due to the new media.
Culture of user interfaces
"I Am DeterMined to Understand What’s Happening" McLuhan 1967
The confessing Catholic and English Professor was precisely rather a Kassandra of the new media age and the hype around him a direct effect of the over-rotated 60s. The end of the Gutenberg Galaxy was not only technical media events, but also welcome counter-reformation and entrance to the new octols of the television age, there "The entire human family becomes a single global trunk fused". The content is not denied by the media, but the theorist is rather about their organization principle: the form dominates all content, there is the rule of the breeding Broadcasting format. The central hope of McLuhan is better to the point with another formula: "WE RETURN TO THE INCLUSIVE FORM OF THE ICON". A culture of user interfaces, so hope, will be less elitar than the culture of the scribes.
The cognitive impact of the alphabet, the font and prere culture of the Occident is relativized by radio and television, ie by audiovisual media technologies that allow a new realitation modulation,. In the middle of the twentieth century, this insight was by no means self-resistant in the context of media technology and perception. McLuhan, whose theory of academic literature of the British New Criticism The 30s Ebensoviel owes like the asthetic innovation of literates such as E.A. Poe, James Joyce, or Ezra Pound, but also the detailed analysis of the Canadian economic historian Harold A. Innis, like no other mood of his time had put on.
Media as a research object, the forming force of materials of communication, the psychic effects of technological change, the social prage by means of communication – these were the new topics of the Canadian school. As Harold Annis in the Handy Teached Ton at the end of the 1940s, "that the use of a certain communication medium surprised over a long period of time in a certain way the form of knowledge to be transmitted", no one hab. As the beginning of the 60s McLuhan with "The Medium is the Message" Heat from all the canals, he was no longer overhorn. However, it is crucial that there was an important step from culture criticism to media theory.
In his first publication The Mechanical Bride (1951) McLuhan still tries to criticize technical rationalization: folk culture of industrial man, the subtitle of this iconography of American everyday culture is. Since he had returned from his student visit to British Cambridge, McLuhan collected advertisements in a box that he won with comments. At some point, the unlikely case occurred that it became a book – but what for one: the texts comment a movie poster with Humphrey Bogart, a promotion indicator for nylon stocking, comics, or the title page of the New York Times, which is optional as a symbolic landscape or as a jazz score. The claim of this dream analysis of the collective consciousness is cultured in a cultural critical:
We live in an era in which for the first time thousands of highly qualified individuals have made a job from turning on into collective public thinking to manipulate, exploit and control it.
But the method irritated, because McLuhan takes one "Circular viewpoint" claim, which allows to read the book in any order. "You hate this book", Maced McLuhan over the failure of his first. "They are obsessed by the old one-dimensional, monolineary stories and executions…" The first German ie appeared incurred in 1996 .
The invention of McLuhanism
For the time being, it was rather quietly looking for the scholars who sought academically fuv. In 1953 he is the magazine together with Edmund Carpenter Exploration, he with the remarkable essay "Culture without font" open. It was funded from funds of the Ford Foundation, and devoted themselves with a number of well-known authors of interdisciplinary investigation of language, cultural behavioral patterns and media – and at a time that regarding communication as a significant signaling problem.
As a result, McLuhan proved to be a gifted self-marketed. In his speech at the annual meeting of National Association of Educational Broadcasters (Naeb) In Nebraska 1958 he pointed out that one urgently explore the nature of the new electronic media to lose the traditional font culture values. Impressed by this concept, McLuhan became the Naeb Research Committee with a Report in Understanding New Media instructed; This coarse-funded report should be the basis for a media-educational compendium in order to adapt the lesson education to the new media ratios.
Our extended senses, tools, techniques, formed by centuries through closed systems that have not been aware of an interplay to an interplay and collectively unconscious. In today’s electric age now, the instantane character of the coexistence of our technical instruments has created a completely new crisis in human history.
Although the report in his mixture of scientific entitlement and partly abstrusive ideas fireworks at the clients did not get well well, there was one of his most successful books: Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (1964), created as the second part of his investigation published in 1962 on the font culture with the no less famous title The Gutenberg Galaxy. The making of typographic man. Not only here in a comprehensive sense, this classic is characterized by this classics, but also how that happens: McLuhan moved from a critique of everyday culture to a criticism of the book culture as a culturally prudent form – a criticism that is the Adapt new perceptual thesetics and give up the critical attitude of the distanced observer.
The exploration of the electronic environment practices an immersive attitude and now surprises with the view of one "Awakening from the historically conditioned nightmare of the past" Using new technologies. Perceive and judge, so McLuhan, new forms had to develop to allow new readability of cultures. The overcoming of the "Typographical Cultural Bias" He placed in the artist avant-garde of the 20. Century, which makes its own construction moments visible, and he spoke itself to the poetic compaction and resolution of the expression form: McLuhan called his own method "Perceptual, Not Conceptual" (perceiving, not conceptual).
As a highly paid consultant for corporate communication General Electric, taken by advertising guru Howard Gossage under the wing, as the world’s mostly discussed intellectual 1967 on the front page of Newsweek, from Tom Wolfe in New York Herald Tribune Portrait, as an interview partner of the Playboy, the privately advanced rather Sprake Canadian College Professor for the well-known media figure. When his theses made in the Jerome Agel and by Quentin Fiore "anti-typographic" designed book The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects (1967) once again, this remix of McLuhanism sold himself in a million copies.
The past is behind there. If we are a completely new situation against us, then we tend to tell us the objects to brackish the atmosphere of the youngest past. We look at the presence in the backpack. We walk ruckwarts into the future. The American first estate lives in his imagination still in the wild west.
"Do you still believe that the medium is the message?" With this question, Gary Wolf opened a fictitious interview with McLuhan in the age of digital media (Wired, Jan.1996). With the restriction that it is less about a reflexive ratio to the media content, but about creating media’s own environmental environment and impose your own prerequisites for the users, the answer is positive. Media are omnipresent and define reality, and this media reality is not something we can easily get off.
How impressive far-sighted McLuhan’s analysis was the media civilization shows the final chapter of Understanding Media (German: the magical channel). This is about the end of the linearity through the resubtions of the "Electrical information movement": Automation and Cybernation. Long before the discourse of the postmoderne McLuhan made his readers aware of what role information, communication and knowledge for the reproduction of society play and merge how culture and technology. The result is a culture of information, the productive force of the new media technology generates after the explosion as a basic motive of an energetic technology of industrial society an implosive attitude, according to which the patterns of progress are to be reused.
Information but defines differences, it has no substance but definitely relations. Not consensus is the goal of communication, but collectivization, non-understanding, but perception shift and translation (media are to McLuhan metaphors "to Translate Experience Into New Form""To). In this worldview of an implosive mosaic, the basic medium electrically interacts the world into a single consciousness. The modernity implodes to Global Village – A rather claustrophobic image and by no means the ideal presentation of a postindustrial society, as it is pushed McLuhan sometimes.
Media as the new nature
A new organicity put in view means the return to a pre-industrial logic for McLuhan, and thus the resumption of moments of socialization, as they passed in oral cultures. The new media of information processing deconstruct the literal alitate, which on the requirements of the phonetic alphabet and the prere built form of civilization. the "Electric simulation" The media reality is a consciousness process, or better the expansion of consciousness over the dimensions of the linguistic in a culture of the surfaces.
This shows in the direction of a comprehensive sensuality within the new electronic environment, the McLuhan new tactitotite and later also Acoustic Space named. The basic pattern of the instantaneous or simile unit breaks with the logic of Kausalitat in favor of medial effects, the Resonance. Resonance ratios correspond to a wide variety of poles in a variety of ways with each other, with not always predictable result. Vibrations of the atmosphere, transition from the logical rational to the sensual-affective motives, which means in about this "Instant Awareness" Tactile couplings playing an original role in the subject constitution than the linearities and causalities of the font culture. Whether this is good or bad, is far from open – although McLuhan has recently emphasized the loss of identity and the repressive aspects of the media use.
The acoustic space is originating that of oral man before the invention of the font, it is a space without solid landmarks. Only the visualization of the room, the order principles of the alphanumeric coding has "to Eye for on Ear" set and increases the distance between man and the world through the increasing abstraction performance. Medial body prostheses were created to expand human action radius; But the body functions succumbed in the medial apparatus. For a while, the fear prevails, these apparatuses were fully adjusted to man the world.
But then it becomes clear: Media create new symbolic levels, and generate completely new environmental environments – "The New Media Are Not Bridges Between Man And Nature, They Are Nature". The fact that media do not reproduce or convey reality, but only define them, which has introduced McLuhan in all radicality.